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Examples of References in APA Style

Websites:

For a passing reference to a website in text, the URL is sufficient; no reference list entry is needed.

Gussie Fink-Nottle has set up a discussion forum for newt fanciers (http://gfnnfg.livejournal.com/).

However, when you are citing a particular document or piece of information from a website, include both a reference list entry and an in-text citation. The key to creating the reference list entry is to determine the type of content on the web page. Basically, provide the following four pieces of information:

Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

That format description in brackets is used only when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes; otherwise, it's not necessary. 

YouTube:

Here’s the general format for creating a reference for a video found on YouTube and other video-posting websites:

  • If both the real name of the person who posted the video and the screen name are known:

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx

  • If only the screen name of the person who posted the video is known:

Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx The in-text citations include the author name outside of brackets (whichever that may be) and the date.

Periodical General format:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Journal article with Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Wiley, L. F., & Gostin, L. O. (2009). The International response to climate change: An agenda for global health. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(11), 1218-1220. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1381

Journal article without DOI:

Scala, R., & Naldi, M. (2008, August). Ventilators for noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure. Respiratory Care, 53(8), 1054-1080. Retrieved from http://www.rcjournal.com/

Journal article with more than seven authors:

Chan, P. S., Nichol, G., Krumholz, H. M., Spertus, J. A., Jones, P. G., Peterson, E. D., . . .Nallamothu, B. K. (2009). Racial differences in survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(11), 1195-1201. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1340

Magazine article:

Yapko, M. & Marano, H. E. (2009, September). Secondhand blues. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com

Newspaper article:

Frellick, M. (2009, November 2). Gestational diabetes at a glance. Sun Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.sun-sentinel.com

Daily Newspaper Article:

Bakalar, N. (2009, August 11). Five–second touch can convey specific emotion, study finds. The New York Times (Late edition). p. D3.

APA In-Text Citations SAMPLE

Quote

Yanovski (2002) reported that “the current state of the treatment for obesity is similar to the state of the treatment of hypertension several decades ago” (p. 600).

Critser (2003) noted that despite growing numbers of overweight Americans, many health care providers still “remain either in ignorance or outright denial about the health danger to the poor and the young” (p. 5).

Paraphrase

Yanovski (2002) explained that sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (p. 594).

Sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (Yanovski, 2002, p. 594).

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