Commonly Used Writing Style Guides
There are a number of different styles or formats for citations. Which style you use depends upon the subject discipline in which you are working. If you are uncertain about which style to use, ask your instructor.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) The APA (American Psychological Association) style is often used by students in the social sciences -- psychology, sociology, business, nursing, etc. The APA and MLA style guide books, with examples, are available in the Reference area of the Library. Click here to see the Purdue University page on APA format. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
APA Citation Style
APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list and vice versa. The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research. For additional examples and more detailed information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.
Reference Citations in Text In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited. Examples: Works by a single author The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.
DeCarbo, M. A. (1969). Mentorship among older and younger college students. Berkeley, CA: University of California.
Article or chapter in an edited book
Franciscu, J. B., & Chiarini, L. B. (1992). Clarity at last: Including personal spiritual beliefs in patient motivation evaluation. In R. M. Bright III (Ed.), Aspects of Pscychology: Vol. 7. Psychology and Religion (2nd ed., pp. 24-68). Hagerstown, PA: Amicus.
Journal article, two authors
Tenn, I. Q., & Peller, R. (1989). Violence in entertainment media [Electronic version]. Perspectives in Psychology, 23(3), 9-19.
Journal article from a database
Prdziebylo, I. L., Korzybski, C. L., & Gimpelowicz, Z. (1991). Interpersonal cognition and sibling rivalry in large families. Polish Journal of Psychology, 74, 329-348. doi: 10.1037/2078-618.104.22.168
**For more information on doi's (Digital Object Identifiers), please consult the APA manual pp.187-192.
*Provide as much information as possible.
AuthorLastname, F. I. (Date of Publication). Web Article Title (if applicable). Title of Web Site. Retreived date, from https://website.com
(If no author listed, begin the entry with the Web Page Title)
Entire Web site
Thaller, M. (2007). Cool Cosmos. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from https://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/
The American Psychological Association style is used in the social sciences, business, anthropology, and some of the life sciences .
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Reference BF76.7 .P83 2010
Watch this ten minute introduction to APA style.
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers The MLA (Modern Language Association) style is often used by students in the humanities -- English, history, writing, speech, etc. Link here to see the Purdue University page on MLA format. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/05/
The Modern Language Association (MLA) establishes values for acknowledging sources used in a research paper. MLA citation style uses a simple two-part parenthetical documentation system for citing sources: Citations in the text of a paper point to the alphabetical Works Cited list that appears at the end of the paper.
Together, these references identify and credit the sources used in the paper and allow others to access and retrieve this material. Citing sources in the text In MLA style, writers place references to sources in the paper to briefly identify them and enable readers to find them in the Works Cited list. These parenthetical references should be kept as brief and as clear as possible.
Give only the information needed to identify a source. Usually the author's last name and a page reference suffice.
Place the parenthetical reference as close as possible to its source. Insert the parenthetical reference where a pause would naturally occur, preferably at the end of a sentence. Information in the parenthesis should complement, not repeat, information given in the text.
Electronic and online sources are cited just like print resources in parenthetical references. Examples: Author's name in text Dover has expressed this concern (118-21). Author's name in reference This concern has been expressed (Dover 118-21).
Works Cited list
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear at the end of the paper in a Works Cited list or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source that specifically supports your research.
References to an entire book should include the following elements:
EXAMPLE CITATIONS MLA
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
Nabokov, Vladimir. Lolita. New York: Putnam, 1955. Print.
Another work, same author:
---. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. New York: Knopf, 1999. Print.
Cross, Susan, and Christine Hoffman. Bruce Nauman: Theaters of Experience. New York: Guggenheim Museum; London: Thames & Hudson, 2004. Print.
Morison, Samuel Eliot, Henry Steele Commager, and William E. Leuchtenburg. The Growth of the American Republic. 2 vols. New York: Oxford UP, 1980. Print.
No author or editor:
Peterson's Annual Guides to Graduate Study. 33rd ed. Princeton, NJ: Peterson's, 1999. Print.
Editor (anthology or collection of essays):
Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, eds. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. Print.
Article in Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers:
References to periodical articles must include the following elements:
• article title
• publication title (journal, magazine, etc.)
• volume number
• publication date (abbreviate months, if used)
• the inclusive page numbers
• medium of publication
Issue numbers should be stated as decimals to a given volume number. In the example below, the number
25.4 reads as Volume 25, issue 4. When citing newspapers, it is important to specify the edition used (e.g. late ed.) because different editions of a newspaper may contain different material.
Journal article, one author:
Matarrita-Cascante, David. "Beyond Growth: Reaching Tourism-Led Development." Annals of Tourism Research 37.4 (2010): 1141-63. Print.
Journal article, two authors:
Laing, Jennifer, and Warwick Frost. "How Green Was My Festival: Exploring Challenges and Opportunities Associated With Staging Green Events." International Journal of Hospitality Management 29.2 (2010): 261-7. Print.
Kaplan, David A. "Corporate America’s No. 1 Gun For Hire." Fortune 1 Nov. 2010: 81-95. Print.
Citing Materials from Online Sources
Citations for online sources, like those for print sources, should provide information that both identifies a source and allows that source to be located and retrieved again. All citations should include the medium of publication (Web) and the date the content was accessed. If the source is difficult to locate or your instructor requires a URL, list the complete address within angle brackets after the date. In many cases, it is also necessary to identify the Web site or database that has made the material available online.
Because there are currently few standards that govern the organization and presentation of online publications, the information that is available to fulfill these objectives can vary widely from resource to resource. In general, references to online works require more information than references to print sources.
See sections 5.6.1-4 in the MLA Handbook for more complete information on creating citations for online sources.
This example includes the optional URL. All other examples below use the shorter citation format.
Cornell University Library. "Introduction to Research." Cornell University Library. Cornell University, 2009. Web. 19 June 2009 <https://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/intro>.
Personal Web site:
If a work is untitled, you may use a genre label such as Home page, Introduction, etc.
Rule, Greg. Home page. Web. 16 Nov. 2008.
Entry in an online encyclopedia:
"Einstein, Albert." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1999. Web. 27 Apr. 2009.
Newspaper article, no author:
"Africa Day Celebrated in Havana." Granma International 31 May 2009, English ed.: 16. Print.
Newspaper article, one author, discontinuous pages:
Bajaj, Vikas. "The Double-Edged Rupee." New York Times 27 Oct. 2010: B1+. Print.