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Grammar and Writing Help

Conjunctions -- Video

Conjunctions

CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions are words used as joiners.

Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.

The following are the kinds of conjunctions:

       

A. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (FANBOYS)

for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another:

            words to words,          phrases to phrases,          clauses to clauses.

         

Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.

 

Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end.

       

Punctuation with coordinating conjunctions:

When a coordinating conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, no comma should be placed before the conjunction.

            

A coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, phrases, or subordinate clauses creates a series and requires commas between the elements.

            

coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a compound sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating conjunction

           

   

        

B. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

either. . .or

both. . . and

neither. . . nor

not only. . .  but also

             

These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.

 

C. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

These conjunctions join independent clauses together.

The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs:

after all

in addition

next

also

incidentally

nonetheless

as a result

indeed

on the contrary

besides

in fact

on the other hand

consequently

in other words

otherwise

finally

instead

still

for example

likewise

then

furthermore

meanwhile

therefore

hence

moreover

thus

however

nevertheless

 

Punctuation:

Place a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after the conjunctive adverb.

     

D. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

These words are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions

 

after

in order (that)

unless

although

insofar as

until

as

in that

when

as far as

lest

whenever

as soon as

no matter how

where

as if

now that

wherever

as though

once

whether

because

provided (that)

while

before

since

why

even if

so that

 

even though

supposing (that)

 

how

than

 

if

that

 

inasmuch as

though

 

in case (that)

till

 

Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent (or "subordinate") upon the other.

A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence.

   

A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does.

Loose: It is raining, so we have an umbrella.
Tight: Because it is raining, we have an umbrella.

 

Punctuation Note:

 

When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma between the two clauses.  When the independent clause is placed first and the dependent clause second, do not separate the two clauses with a comma.

 

 

Towson University Writing SupportConjunctions.

More Coordinating Conjunctions