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Introduction to Peru
- Capital: Lima
- Official Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara
- Currency: Peruvian sol (PEN)
- Pre-Colonial Period: Indigenous cultures like the Inca Empire and Moche civilization thrived in ancient Peru.
- Spanish Colonization: Peru was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century.
- Independence: Peru declared its independence from Spain in 1821, led by José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.
- Republic Era: Peru became a republic in 1824 after the Battle of Ayacucho.
Culture & Traditions
- Inca Heritage: Peru celebrates its Inca heritage through festivals, including Inti Raymi, the Festival of the Sun.
- Cuisine: Peruvian cuisine is renowned worldwide, with dishes like ceviche, lomo saltado, and causa.
- Music and Dance: Traditional music includes huayno and marinera. Afro-Peruvian rhythms like landó are also significant.
Geography & Environment
- Andes Mountains: Peru is home to the Andes, including the stunning Sacred Valley and Machu Picchu.
- Amazon Rainforest: The eastern part of Peru is part of the Amazon basin, featuring rich biodiversity.
- Pacific Coast: Lima and other coastal cities offer beautiful beaches and a seafood-rich culinary scene.
- Mario Vargas Llosa: Nobel laureate and renowned author of "The Feast of the Goat" and "Conversation in the Cathedral."
- Flora Tristan: Early feminist and social activist.
- Gastón Acurio: Celebrated chef and promoter of Peruvian cuisine.
- Economic Overview: Peru's economy is diverse, with significant contributions from mining (copper, gold), agriculture (potatoes, quinoa), and tourism.
- Machu Picchu: A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Machu Picchu is an iconic symbol of Peru and a major tourist attraction.
- Sports: Football (soccer) is the most popular sport, and Peruvian athletes have excelled in various sports.
Recommended Readings & Film
- "The Feast of the Goat" by Mario Vargas Llosa
- "Turner" by Librado Basadre
- "The Bridge of San Luis Rey" by Thornton Wilder
- "The Milk of Sorrow" (2009)
- "The Secret in Their Eyes" (2009)
- "Climbing with Pride" (2018)