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Peru: Home

Introduction to Peru

  • Capital: Lima
  • Official Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara
  • Currency: Peruvian sol (PEN)


  • Pre-Colonial Period: Indigenous cultures like the Inca Empire and Moche civilization thrived in ancient Peru.
  • Spanish Colonization: Peru was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century.
  • Independence: Peru declared its independence from Spain in 1821, led by José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar.
  • Republic Era: Peru became a republic in 1824 after the Battle of Ayacucho.

Culture & Traditions

  • Inca Heritage: Peru celebrates its Inca heritage through festivals, including Inti Raymi, the Festival of the Sun.
  • Cuisine: Peruvian cuisine is renowned worldwide, with dishes like ceviche, lomo saltado, and causa.
  • Music and Dance: Traditional music includes huayno and marinera. Afro-Peruvian rhythms like landó are also significant.

Geography & Environment

  • Andes Mountains: Peru is home to the Andes, including the stunning Sacred Valley and Machu Picchu.
  • Amazon Rainforest: The eastern part of Peru is part of the Amazon basin, featuring rich biodiversity.
  • Pacific Coast: Lima and other coastal cities offer beautiful beaches and a seafood-rich culinary scene.

Famous Personalities

  • Mario Vargas Llosa: Nobel laureate and renowned author of "The Feast of the Goat" and "Conversation in the Cathedral."
  • Flora Tristan: Early feminist and social activist.
  • Gastón Acurio: Celebrated chef and promoter of Peruvian cuisine.

Modern Peru

  • Economic Overview: Peru's economy is diverse, with significant contributions from mining (copper, gold), agriculture (potatoes, quinoa), and tourism.
  • Machu Picchu: A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Machu Picchu is an iconic symbol of Peru and a major tourist attraction.
  • Sports: Football (soccer) is the most popular sport, and Peruvian athletes have excelled in various sports.

Recommended Readings & Film

  • Books:
    • "The Feast of the Goat" by Mario Vargas Llosa
    • "Turner" by Librado Basadre
    • "The Bridge of San Luis Rey" by Thornton Wilder
  • Films:
    • "The Milk of Sorrow" (2009)
    • "The Secret in Their Eyes" (2009)
    • "Climbing with Pride" (2018)