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Hialeah Business Reference Resources: Citing Sources


APA Examples

APA Sample Paper

In-Text Citation Basics

You must include an in-text citation every time you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or refer to another source. In addition, there needs to be a full citation in your reference list at the end of the paper for every in-text citation used.

APA format focuses on the author and the year of the source that is being cited, and when a direct quotation is used, the page number must be added. This can be done in a variety of ways:

  • Introduce the information or quote with the authors names and the year in parenthesis.

Forstenlechner, Lettice, Bourne, & Webb (2007) surveyed the top ten global law firms and found that employees felt they were able to be more productive, and produced work that was of higher quality when using a knowledge management system.

According to Land, Amjad, & Nolas, “KM systems provide an opportunity to manipulate and control knowledge in all phases from the sourcing, collection of knowledge, to its storage and distribution (2007, p. 2). 

  • ‚ÄčAdd the author and year in parenthesis at the end of the sentence.

In open knowledge, standardization within metadata is needed for organization, while in knowledge management, each organization has its own categorization structure (Clobridge, 2016).  

  • When there is no date attached to your source, use "n.d."

The Knowledge Management Association works to, “fosters learning and professional development by bringing together knowledge professionals in industry, academia, and professional organizations, in a fulfilling and enriching environment” (Knowledge Management Association, n.d.). 


Clobridge, A., & Smith, E. (2016). Open Knowledge Versus Knowledge Management. Online Searcher, 40(2), 68–70. Retrieved from

Forstenlechner, I., Lettice, F., Bourne, M., & Webb, C. (2007). Turning knowledge into value in professional service firms. Performance Measurement and Metrics8(3), 146–156. doi:10.1108/14678040710841027

Knowledge Management Association Code of Ethics. (2014). Retrieved April 27, 2016, from

Land, F., Amjad, U., & Nolas, S.-M. (2007). The ethics of knowledge management. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 3(1), 1–9. doi:10.4018/jkm.2007010101

For more information visit Purdue OWL's In-Text Citations: The Basics webpage


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