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EPI 0004 The Teaching and Learning Process: Finding Articles

This guide is for students in the Educators Preparation Institute

Suggested Education Databases

You will be able to search for articles on education in journals, magazines, and newspapers.  You will need to log in to the databases in order to access the articles. Use your MDC Student ID Number as the Borrower ID and enter the last 4 digits of your Student ID Number in the box for PIN/Password. Please click on this link to log in to the databases.  Below are some suggested databases for articles on education.

Using Detect, Practice, and Repair (DPR) to Differentiate and Individualize Math Fact Instruction in a Class-Wide Setting

Using Detect, Practice, and Repair (DPR) to Differentiate and Individualist Math Fact Instruction in a Class-Wide Setting

A multiple baseline design was used across probe sets to evaluate the effect of detect, practice, and repair (DPR) on the math fact fluency rates of a third-grade class. DPR was applied with a large group ( n = 11) selected from an intact class ( n = 17) in a manner that allowed each student to work on specific problems from a specific basic fact operation (i.e., subtraction, multiplication, or division) based on a daily assessment of their instructional needs. Prior to the implementation of DPR, students were computing an average of 18.4 digits correct per minute (DCPM). After using DPR for 11 sessions, students were computing an average of 31.2 DCPM. This 12.8 DCPM increase over 36 problems required approximately 132 min (12 min per session). Discussion focuses on the need for and challenges associated with developing intervention strategies and procedures that efficiently increase student skills at the class-wide level, with an emphasis on simultaneously meeting the needs of both high and low achievers by differentiating instruction. 

This article is from the Education Full Text database. Log in with your MDC student number.

 

 

Teachers' Instructional Use of Summative Student Assessment Data

Teachers' Instructional Use of Summative Student Assessment Data

This study examines the extent to which classroom teachers self-report using summative assessment data in formative ways to shape instruction. A Web-based survey was administered to elementary, middle, and high school teachers in a large, suburban school district in central Virginia. Teachers reported administering a variety of summative assessments with varying frequency, and analyzing data at the aggregate level, most often using central tendency statistics. Useful methods for disaggregating data by content standards or student subgroups were not as frequently reported. Regardless of the methods of data analysis, a majority of teachers reported using assessment results to evaluate their instructional practice and make adjustments to support student learning. The results suggest, however, that teachers engaged in a cursory analysis of student performance fairly regularly but conduct more in-depth analyses less often. The study raises questions about how teachers can effectively use summative data for instructional purposes.

The article is from the Education Full Text database. Use your MDC Student Number to log in.

 

How to Log into the Databases

Teacher Retreating: The Little Known Behavior that Impacts Teaching and Learning

Teacher Retreating: The Little Known Behavior that Impacts Teaching and Learning

This paper discusses findings from four years of observational research examining classroom climate. Specifically, findings that focused on one powerful teacher behavior (teacher retreating) were examined. These data indicated that teacher retreating was negatively correlated to the amount of instructional interaction occurring between students and teachers and was positively correlated to the amount of unwanted student behavior observed. Regression analysis indicated that teacher retreating was the only behavior that predicted the amount of student off-task behavior taking place. The authors discuss the importance of these findings to teacher educators and offer suggestions for preventing teacher retreating.

This is an article from the Teacher Reference Center database. Log in with your MDC Student Number.

The Teaching-Learning Environment, an Information-Dynamic Approach

The Teaching-Learning Environment, an Information-Dynamic Approach

In the present study a generalized approach is given for the description of acquisition procedures with a particular focus on the knowledge acquisition process. The  learning progression is given as an example here letting the theory to be applied to different situations. An analytical approach is performed starting from the generalized fundamental definitions of the main characterizing variables of the  learning process: motivation, background, interaction; the environmental stability was presented here as a derived quantity which has the features of a property or a state variable. This approach can be generalized to any process by performing an abstraction to its macro-state and with a rigorous definition of the mentioned variables. The derivation of parameters describing transfer in general, in this case related to information and knowledge, and further treatment of them leading to state properties, is a fundamental aspect which allows optimizing systems putting investigators in a condition of independence.

This is an article from the Teacher Reference Center database. Log in with your MDC Student Number.

Designing Inquiry for Upper Elementary Students: Lessons Learned from Driver's Ed

Designing Inquiry for Upper Elementary Students: Lessons Learned from Driver's Ed

The article discusses designing inquiry-based learning for upper elementary students through the Common Core English Language Arts Standards that calls for relevance, rigor, and relationship. Topics covered include ways of making inquiry meaningful for students, components to consider in designing research tasks, and the effectiveness of short research for teaching information literacy skills.

This article is from the Education Full Text database. Log in with your MDC Student ID number.

Differentiated Instruction: Can Differentiated Instruction Provide Success for All Learners?

Differentiated Instruction: Can Diferentiated Instruction Provide Success for All Learners? 

Gregory and Chapman (2007) the authors of Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn't fit All, stated that teachers can no longer teach "the lesson" and hope that everyone gets it. Research shows that students prefer  instruction in various modalities. They learn in a variety of ways and have different interest. Some students prefer learning with visual aids, others by talking in groups or with a partner, others by listening to  instruction; while others learn by doing and being physically involved (Kellough 1999). Differentiated instruction is the new word and most school districts want teachers to be trained with this approach and want to see it implemented in their schools. Differentiation is a philosophy that enables to plan strategically in order to meet the needs of the diverse learner in today's classroom (Gregory & Chapman 2007). This paper will be based on  differentiated instruction and the effects it has on students with diverse needs. It will attempt to address the following questions: What is differentiated instruction? What is the research background for this method? How does it work? What are the recommended instructional strategies? 

This article is from the Education Research Complete database. Log in with your MDC student number.

 

Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

Formative Assessment: Simply, No Additives

Among the types of assessment the closest to daily reading instruction is formative assessment. In contrast to summative assessment, which occurs after instruction, formative assessment involves forming judgments frequently in the flow of instruction. Key features of formative assessment include identifying gaps between where students are and where they need to go in their reading development; creating feedback loops that provide information about changes in performance gaps; involving students in meaningful, productive self-assessment; and charting from point A to point B to shape, mold, form reading development in the desired direction. Implementation involves developing a set of basic reading activities with clear success criteria and cultivating a learning-oriented culture in the classroom where students are willing to persist at improving their knowledge and skills. Effective formative assessment in reading instruction calls for knowledgeable teachers who are willing to develop and hone their assessment skills and practices in daily reading instruction.

The article is form the Education Full Text database. Use your MDC Student Number to log in.

 

How Theory Matters: Formative Assessment Theory and Practices and Their Different Relations to Education

How Theory Matters: Formative Assessment Theory and Practices and Their Different Relations to Education

The positioning of theory in relation to educational practice has provoked much recent debate, with some arguing that educational theory constrains thinking in education, while others dismiss 'theory' out of hand as belonging to the world of the 'academic', abstracted from the 'realities' of the classroom. This paper views theory as necessarily implicated in all practices, but argues that depending on the theories embraced, and the understanding of theory itself, education can be understood in very different ways. Resisting the separation of theory from practice, the paper takes up the call to consider the entanglement of theory with practice, or how theory matters. It takes formative assessment as a particularly fertile case for this discussion. Formative assessment has been considerably developed in schooling across different national education systems. Its aspiration is for assessment to support learning, rather than only to credentialise learning. Having first emerged as a concept when behaviourism held sway, it has been considered through different theoretical lenses. Drawing upon empirical studies of classroom assessment practices, the paper draws out the different 'mattering' implicated in the different languages of assessment used by practitioners, raising questions about the practices this produced. The paper concludes by asking if formative assessment could become 'educational' in a more radical sense, if opportunities to focus on the contingencies and politics of our meaning-making were sometimes taken up more openly and dialogically with students, as opposed to formative assessment sitting in a instrumental relationship to a given curriculum.

The article is from the Teacher Reference Center database. Log in with your MDC Student Number.

 

Subject Guide

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Beth Cloues
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Improving Teaching and Learning: Three Models to Reshape Educational Practice

Improving Teaching and Learning: Three Models to Reshape Educational Practice

The work of schools is  teaching and  learning. However, the current educational culture is dominated by three characteristics: (1) the mechanistic view of organization and its practice based on the assembly line model where students progress along a value added conveyor; (2) the predominance of the Essentialist philosophy of education, in which the teacher-centered classroom transfers bits of "essential" knowledge to students; and (3) the high stakes testing mentality, which believes in the rigid and frequent testing of students to ensure  learning and enforce accountability. Three models are presented that demonstrate the limitation of the testing mentality and highlight the other educational options available to students and schools. Acting on the three models has the potential to improve  teaching and learning by providing a earning environment characterized by deep, complex, active and generative  learning at the expert level.

This is an article from the Teacher Reference Center database. Log in with your MDC Student Number.

Differentiated Instruction: Making Informed Teacher Decisions

Differentiated Instruction: Making Informed Teacher Decisions

This article addresses approaches to differentiating  instruction to meet the needs of students whose literacy needs, interests, and strengths vary widely. This article was designed to support classroom teachers who understand the importance of differentiating instruction, but are unsure of how best to design and implement differentiation within the parameters of the classroom. The article begins by defining differentiated instruction and discussing its importance, including the role of differentiation with respect to diversity and with respect to Response to Intervention (RTI). The remainder of the article describes in detail two examples of differentiated instruction in classroom contexts. Each example is followed by a discussion of the research and decision-making underlying the teacher's approach to differentiation. The article concludes with common characteristics of effective differentiation.

This article is from the Education Full Text database, Log in using your MDC student number.

 

Formative Assessment Made Easy: Templates for Collecting Daily Data in Inclusive Classrooms

Formative Assessment Made Easy: Templates for Collecting Daily Date in Inclusive Classrooms

The article discusses the importance of assessments in special education under U.S. education policies such as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) and offers templates for teachers to create formative assessments. Particular attention is given to the value of observing student behavior to help improve engagement.

This article is from the Education Full Text database. Use your MDC Student Number to log in.

 

Harnessing Formative and Summative Assessments to Promote Mathematical Understanding and Proficiency

Harnessing Formative and Summative Assessments to Promote Mathematical Understanding and Profiency

Whenever attempts are made to diagnose the cause of mathematics underachievement, sometimes the real problem is missed leading to the claims that engender unfortunate dichotomy other than harmony between complementary concepts. Mathematics educators must work to ensure and maintain the realization that mathematics is a connected enterprise. Against this backdrop, prompting a feud between for example, basic skills and conceptual understanding or a disagreement between formative assessment and summative assessment as competing issues does not promote effective mathematics learning. Assessment plays formidable role in mathematics education hence both formative and summative assessments should be aligned in a meaningful way to effect success in mathematics understanding and proficiency. In this article the relative merits of formative and summative have been discussed and there is little doubt that the two forms of assessment are more in agreement than conflict. Formative assessments can be conceived as micro summative assessment and for that matter they have identical or complementary objectives of determining mathematics learning outcomes. Even though the two forms of assessment are administered at different time points, they can be characterized as mutually reinforcing.

The article is from Education Research Complete. Log in with your MDC Student Number.