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Optimize Instruction with Learning Resources: Supporting Research

This guide outlines the levels of service the Learning Resources Department offers to faculty and staff at the MDC Wolfson Campus.

Annotated Bibliography


Annotated Bibliography

 Andrews, C. R. (2015). Embedded Librarianship: Best Practices Explored and Redefined. International Journal of Educational

Organization & Leadership, 22(2). 1-14. 

This article generously delivers extensive research into Embedded Librarianship within the context of implementing a program that is thoroughly prepared yet flexible enough to adapt to any campus or curriculum. Librarians wish to bridge the gap between course departments and libraries by integrating within the classroom information literacy, effective strategies for both reading comprehension and the writing process, and activities that instill proper research techniques. Embedded Librarianship can be constructed in a way that best suits both the instructor and the student’s needs; that being said, librarians seek to be perceived as partners eager to assist rather than a service on campus. First and foremost, there needs to be approval from the institution before application; there can be hesitation towards introducing such a program to a curriculum as it can be seen as though the librarian is taking over instruction, but with proper negotiation between librarian and professor, Embedded Librarianship can be a collaborative experience that respects the professor’s role while still insisting the significance of library assistance. Furthermore, with current events causing the educational system to rapidly adjust towards mostly online or hybrid modes of teaching, this is the most opportune time to integrate developmental support for both teaching faculty and students.  


Bailey, K., Jacobsen, M. (2019).Connecting theory to practice: Using the Community of Inquiry theoretical framework to examine library 

          instruction. Journal of Information Literacy,13(2),173. doi:10.11645/13.2.2578 

This design-based research study of library instruction was developed using the Community of Inquiry theoretical framework. Three different instructional approaches were developed and evaluated as part of this study: the one-shot session approach, the partially embedded librarian approach, and the fully embedded librarian approach. Two research questions framed this study: (a) How can the delivery of library instruction influence students’ scholarly writing in higher education; (b) How can the Community of Inquiry theoretical framework inform the design of library instruction? Research suggests the best way to develop library instruction is in collaboration with the instructors who teach students how to produce scholarly writing. Through this initial exploration of the use of CoI in research and the review of recent literature, it is contended that there is both promise and potential in librarians and first-year writing instructors using the CoI theoretical framework in their collaborative design of library instruction. 


Booke, P., & Wiebe, T. J. (2017). Improving student assessments of elections: The use of information literacy and a course-embedded librarian     

Learning and Teaching, 10(2). Beghahn Books, Inc.

This article examines the efficacy of a course-embedded librarian and information literacy training as a means of increasing student research confidence and competence. The findings of the experiment suggest that students participating in a course with an embedded librarian, information literacy training, and an assignment based on the training session reported higher levels of research confidence and demonstrated the use and understanding of selected information literacy skills and concepts. Combining the expertise of an embedded librarian and the content knowledge of an expert in the discipline offers a unique opportunity for instructors in the discipline of political science. It allows students not only to master the basics of research in ways that are targeted towards the specific activities in which majors engage, but also foster critical thinking skills that will allow them to engage in political content as non-majors. Research suggests that the training and resources provided by an embedded librarian increase student confidence in their ability to find information about and predict the outcome of elections when they have this required data. 


Chappell, S., Arnold, P., Nunnery, J., & Grant, M. (2015). An Examination of an Online Tutoring Program’s Impact on Low-Achieving Middle 

        School Students’ Mathematics Achievement. Online Learning, 19(5), 37–53.        

While this article focuses on virtual mathematics tutoring, their intention remains the same: reaching out to as many students as possible to surpass the dependence of basic instruction and less successful tutoring methods. Basic instruction would be the “business-as-usual” math courses students take, and less successful methods are when institutions solely focus on in-person tutoring without the introduction of a modern approach. In a constantly changing environment, more schools, if not all, have adopted technology into their teaching; this article provides research to support that online tutoring is the key to truly enhancing student achievement. Online tutoring is done best when students receive individualized instruction from qualified professionals on a consistent basis; also, this program is meant to be one that supplements—not overshadows—the learning done in the classroom, thus creating an interconnected relationship between the teacher, tutor, and learner. Whether within a small group setting or, preferably, one-on-one session, these math tutors explain, reiterate, and correct difficult concepts to ensure the student’s comprehension of the material. In turn, research points to substantial evidence towards assessment score improvement and “an overall positive experience.” 


Epstein, M., & Draxler, B. (2020). Collaborative assessment of an academic library and writing center partnership: Embedded writing and   

         research tutors for first-year students. College & Research Libraries, 81(3), 509. doi:          

This article reports on collaborative research that assessed the impact of a joint library and writing center initiative: the Writing and Research Tutor program. This report details collaborative research that assessed the impact of a joint library and writing center initiative: underrepresented first year students were paired with a tutor trained in both writing and research support for mandatory weekly tutorials. In fall 2017, the writing center director and research librarian jointly piloted the embedded Writing and Research Tutor (WRT) program to provide additional individualized writing and research support for incoming first year students. The WRT program aims to support first year students enrolled in these first year writing preparation courses as they develop foundational skills in both writing and research. The program also serves as a development pipeline for highly motivated students who succeed in these courses to become Writing and Research Tutors themselves. 


Franzen, S. R., & Sharkey, J. (2021). Impact of embedded librarianship on undergraduate nursing students’ information skills. Journal of the 

                 Medical Library Association, 109(2). 

This study seeks to provide evidence of the benefits of the embedded librarianship model. Library literature notes that when students interact with an embedded librarian, their skills improve. Studies show that students do not retain information fluency skills when they are delivered in a one-shot format. Embedding is a “direct and purposeful interaction.” Data from the study indicated that students do indeed retain information literacy skills with an increased number of sessions. 


Perez, E. B., Gilbert, E. A., Harter, J., & Larrivee, L. S. (2021). Mathematics Tutoring in Higher Education: Impact on Students and Student   

       Tutors. Currents in Teaching & Learning, 13(1), 26 38. 

With an explicit focus on mathematics tutoring at a university level, this article examines the benefits of tutoring for both students and peer tutors. Based on evidence from conducted surveys, records indicate a significant increase in student achievement and overall attitudes towards the subject. This article expresses that it is crucial to analyze how students offering tutoring services respond to their role; not only is this a cost-effective way for universities to provide individualized instruction outside of the classroom, but also, a way for students to gain leadership skills and a different perspective on the material, especially if it is a class they have taken or are currently taking. Within the context of Embedded Tutoring at a college level across all departments, this type of routine typically encourages a “Big Brother/Sister” mentorship because of the feeling of “imparting wisdom” onto a younger student. Since the tutor would be aware of the curriculum, rubric, assignments, etc., this consistent familiarity granted to the student would ensure a comfortable learning experience that is guided to its fullest potential—as opposed to traditional tutoring, where the tutor is unbiased and more dependent on the student’s needs solely within the session.  


Racchini, A. N. (2020). Embedded Tutoring: One Initiative To Help Struggling Students. Currents in Teaching & Learning, 12(1), 47–55. 


Universities are consistently discovering new ways to retain students and promote academic achievement. One incentive that has been recently activated in several colleges is an Embedded Tutoring program, where students develop a close relationship with a trained tutor through weekly sessions and constant communication. “Research demonstrates that there is a relationship between students who use student support services and first to second year persistence, improved grade point average, and degree completion (Bean & Eaton, 2001). While there is no specific method to embedded tutoring, its strong suit should be its flexibility; a successful program coheres to the curriculum as well as the preferences of both students and professors. Typically, it is encouraged that the embedded tutor attends the class on a weekly basis mainly to establish good rapport and reliability, but there are also other significant reasons: “While attending the class, the tutor demonstrated effective student behaviors and successful academic habits. During class discussions, the embedded tutor offered the perspective of an experienced student. The embedded tutor also assisted individual students who needed support during in-class activities” (Rachinni, 2020). This study explains this approach as an answer to helping at-risk students and retention rate, but with how beneficial it proves to be, it is clear that Embedded Tutoring should be adopted by more universities and infused into as many classes as possible.  


Ticknor, C. S., Shaw, K. A., & Howard, T. (2014). Assessing the Impact of Tutorial Services. Journal of College Reading & Learning, 45(1), 52–66. 

This study seeks to determine the influence tutoring services has on their targeted group, underrepresented students, which consisted of typically females and Blacks. Their tutoring was directed towards STEM-related courses (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), but under a general context, statistics show that there was indeed a positive impact on students receiving said services. Black males tended to be the highest correspondent of tutoring and revealed improved scores due to frequent and consistence attendance at tutoring sessions. It is unfortunate that records indicated that their tutoring centers are being underutilized by students; that being said, the key to encouraging a stronger flow of incoming students is by embedding these services into courses. By introducing an embedded tutoring program, the trained tutors working closely with a professor can promote not only the significance tutoring can have on their academic success but also sound educational habits.