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Human-Centered Design and Design Thinking
Design thinking is a thought process that depends on examining all sides of an issue from both a practical and a creative perspective before deciding what course of action is most likely to achieve the desired goal. Design thinking, which is a major tool within the business world, is a form of solution-focused thinking. The major aspects of design thinking are understanding the practical and emotional needs of a client, using prototypes or physical models to explore possible ways of achieving goals, and being willing to try different paths even though they may result in failure. Unlike the scientific method of thinking, which is based on a thorough analysis of a problem and involves both observation and experimentation, design thinking begins with a specific goal in mind and then investigates all possible paths that travel toward that goal. With design thinking, it is often necessary to redefine terms, repeat steps, and reexamine initial ideas before achieving the ultimate goal.
Current Literature on Design Thinking
Design thinking for higher education innovation
"In general, most agree that design thinking is characterized by empathy and user-centeredness, iteration and experimentation, systems thinking, tolerance for ambiguity and failure, and the formation of insights from both reason and intuition. More fundamentally, Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert Simon argued that design aims to change “existing situations into preferred ones” (1996, p. 114). In our view, this concentration on transforming existing states into preferred ones is the essence of design thinking."
Design as a Mode of Inquiry in Design Pedagogy and Design Thinking
The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical framework to strengthen design thinking and practice in the context of teaching through productive processes and using it to generate knowledge. The article explores three modes of inquiry inspired by Dewey and based on Schön, Barab & Squire and DiSalvo to investigate academic inquiry in design pedagogy and design thinking. These three modes are aimed at generating knowledge in three different areas: the design practice (in order to be a good designer and create good designs), a given research area, and societal issues.
The Design Thinking Process