Redesigning nursing tutorials for ESL students: A pilot study.Increased enrolments of Bachelor of Nursing (BN) students who speak English as a second language (ESL) can help create a multilingual and culturally diverse workforce that is better prepared to meet the needs of increasingly diverse health populations. However, although ESL enrolments are increasing, attrition rates for ESL students tend to be higher than those of native speakers of English, partly due to academic failure. At the same time, concerns have been expressed in some quarters about the low levels of English language of entering students. As it is unlikely that language entry levels to university will be raised, sustainable programmes that help ESL students better meet the academic challenges they may face need to be developed. So far, models of ESL support have been mostly an adjunct to their degree, voluntary and not well attended. This paper discusses a model using tutorials integrated into the first year nursing curriculum that were specifically designed for ESL students with low levels of English language proficiency. The paper also examines students' perceptions of such tutorials, which they found beneficial to their learning.
Tutoring as an embodied activity: How speech, gaze and body orientation are coordinated to conduct ESL tutorial businessAbstract: This study examines ESL tutoring openings and closings. The data come from real-time dialogues involving tutors who are native speakers of American English and students who are in the process of improving their communication skills in English. Drawing on the method of conversation analysis, the study explores on a turn-by-turn basis the coordination of speech, gaze, and body orientation during the course of the participants’ tutorial interaction. Specifically, it analyzes the extent to which participants’ vocal and nonvocal actions contribute to the co-construction of ESL tutorial discourse as a collaborative activity. The study has implications for the native–nonnative dichotomy in second language discourse and for the notion of interactional asymmetry.
The development of an ESL OWL, or learning how to tutor writing onlineAbstract: This essay describes the development of an ESL OWL by grounding practices in language and literacy pedagogy theory. An initial discussion explores OWLs emulating physical writing center spaces. Two areas of concern are then addressed in meeting the needs of second language writers as they relate to practices and training for online tutoring: error correction—an area of frequent concern to second language writers—and increased interactivity—meeting second language writer expectations and creating autonomous learners. Issues of plagiarism by second language writers are discussed as related to the type of feedback OWL tutors can provide. Highlighted throughout are samples of interactions between tutors and writers that show a process of learning how to create dialogue rather than dictations from the tutor to clean up a single essay.
What are the differences? Tutor interactions with first- and second-language writersThis paper reports on a decade of research into the nature of interactions between writing center tutors
and native speaker (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) tutees. It explores and describes the structure of
this interaction and the behaviors of NNS tutees, and of tutors when interacting with both NS and NNS
tutees. It characterizes writing center tutorials with NNSs as a balancing act among potentially
conflicting forces. Finally, it suggests applications of these insights to tutor preparation and practice.